Citing Sources: Chicago Notes/Bibliography Style

This guide gives general guidelines and specific examples for using the Chicago Style Notes and Bibliography citation format.

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First-Line Indents Versus Hanging Indents

PLEASE MIND YOUR INDENTS!

Your FOOTNOTES should use first-line indents, which means: The first line of the citation is indented, and any lines after the first start against the right margin. If you use the Footnote functions in Microsoft Word or a similar word-processing program, this first-line indent will often be automatic. 

Your BIBLIOGRAPHY, on the other hand, should use hanging indents, which means: If a citation requires more than one line, all lines after the first should be indented.

Do NOT use the Enter and Tab keys to indent these lines; use the special indents feature in Microsoft Word or another word-processing program:

  • Select / highlight your whole bibliography;
  • On the Home tab, click the arrow in the lower right corner of the Paragraph group;
  • In the dialog box that opens, open the list under Special and choose "Hanging" (First Line indent is another option here).

Examples of Chicago Citations for Common Source Types

 

Books

 

Book with One Author First Reference

1. Georg C. Iggers, Historiography in the Twentieth Century: From Scientific Objectivity to the Postmodern Challenge (Hanover, NH: Wesleyan University Press, 1997), 12.

  Future References

3. Iggers, Historiography, 97.

  Bibliography

Iggers, Georg C. Historiography in the Twentieth Century: From Scientific Objectivity to the Postmodern Challenge. Hanover, NH: Wesleyan University Press, 1997.

Book with 2-3 Authors First Reference

1. Andrew Sanders and Ian S. Wood, Times of Troubles: Britain's War in Northern Ireland (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2012), 15-16.

  Future References

3. Sanders and Wood, Times of Troubles, 55.

  Bibliography

Sanders, Andrew, and Ian S. Wood. Times of Troubles: Britain's War in Northern Ireland. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2012.

More than 4 Authors  

Note: List first author only followed by "et. al." Example: John Doe et. al.,...

Bibliography: List all authors.

Book with Editor, Translator, or Compiler instead of author First Reference

1. David C. Natcher, Lawrence Felt, and Andrea Procter, eds., Settlement, Subsistence, and Change Among the Labrador Inuit: The Nunatsiavummiut Experience (Winnipeg: University of Manitoba, 2012), 127.

  Future References

3. Natcher, Felt, and Procter, eds., Settlement, Subsistence, and Change, 221.

  Bibliography

Natcher, David C., Lawrence Felt, and Andrea Procter, eds. Settlement, Subsistence, and Change Among the Labrador Inuit: The Nunatsiavummiut Experience. Winnipeg: University of Manitoba, 2012.

Book with Editor, Translator, or Compiler in addition to author First Reference

1. Guy Vanthemsche, Belgium and the Congo, 1885-1980, trans. Alice Cameron and Stephen Windross (New York: Cambridge, 2012), 32.

  Future References

3. Vanthemsche, Belgium and the Congo, 71.

  Bibliography

Vanthemsche, Guy. Belgium and the Congo, 1885-1980. Translated by Alice Cameron and Stephen Windross. New York: Cambridge, 2012.

Book Chapter First Reference

1. LeeAnn Whites, "The Civil War as a Crisis in Gender," in Major Problems in the Civil War and Reconstruction: Documents and Essays, eds. Michael Perman and Amy Murrell Taylor (Boston: Wadsworth Cengage Learning, 2011), 14.

  Future References

3. Whites, "The Civil War," 15.

  Bibliography

Whites, LeeAnn. "The Civil War as a Crisis in Gender." In Major Problems in the Civil War and Reconstruction: Documents and Essays, edited by Michael Perman and Amy Murrell Taylor, 14-23. Boston: Wadsworth Cengage Learning, 2011.

 

 

Articles

 

Articles with multiple authors   Refer to examples above for books with 2-3 or 4+ authors, and follow the same format for article authors.
Journal Article - Print First Reference

1. Andrew J. Bacevich, "The Revisionist Imperative: Rethinking Twentieth Century Wars," Journal Of Military History 76, no. 2 (April 2012): 335.

  Future References

3. Bacevich, "The Revisionist Imperative," 338.

  Bibliography

Bacevich, Andrew J. "The Revisionist Imperative: Rethinking Twentieth Century Wars." Journal Of Military History 76, no. 2 (April 2012): 333-342.

Journal Article - Online (see next section for more details) First Reference

1. Richard Jensen, "Military History on the Electronic Frontier: Wikipedia Fights the War of 1812," Journal Of Military History 76, no. 4 (October 2012): 1166, http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=ahl&AN= 80001381&site=ehost-live&scope=site.

  Future References

3. Jensen, "Military History," 1171.

  Bibliography

Jensen, Richard. "Military History on the Electronic Frontier: Wikipedia Fights the War of 1812." Journal Of Military History 76, no. 4 (October 2012): 1165-1182. http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=ahl&AN= 80001381&site=ehost-live&scope=site.

Magazine or Newspaper Article First Reference

1. Lysa Allman-Baldwin, "Celebrating the Civil War Sesquicentennial," New York Amsterdam News, April 19, 2012, 1.

  Future References

3. Allman-Baldwin, "Celebrating," 1.

  Bibliography

Allman-Baldwin, Lysa. "Celebrating the Civil War Sesquicentennial." New York Amsterdam News, April 19, 2012.

Book Review First Reference

1. Jörg Matthias Determann, "A Global History of Modern Historiography," review of A Global History of Modern Historiography, by Georg G. Iggers and Q. Edward Wang, Journal Of World History 22, no. 2 (June 2011): 370.

  Future References

3. Determann, "A Global History," 371.

  Bibliography

Determann, Jörg Matthias. "A Global History of Modern Historiography." Review of A Global History of Modern Historiography, by Georg G. Iggers and Q. Edward Wang. Journal Of World History 22, no. 2 (June 2011): 369-372.

 

 

Online Articles from Library Databases

When citing electronic articles, the style will differ depending on what information is available. The rules are briefly explained, then several examples are given to illustrate.

  1. If the article has a DOI --> include the DOI. Do not include the URL or database name. (Read the article's details or citation in the database carefully--if you don't see "DOI," it probably doesn't have one. IMPORTANT: NOT ALL ARTICLES HAVE DOIs.)
  2. If the article does not have a DOI, but does have a Permalink or Stable URL --> include the Permalink or Stable URL. Do not include the database name.
  3. If the article does not have a DOI or Permalink/Stable URL --> include the name of the database where it was found. Note that JSTOR and all databases on the EBSCOhost platform will provide at least a Permalink/Stable URL, if not a DOI.
Journal Article - with DOI First Reference

1. Gueorgi Kossinets and Duncan J. Watts, “Origins of Homophily in an Evolving Social Network,” American Journal of Sociology 115 (2009): 411, accessed February 28, 2010, doi:10.1086/599247.

  Future References

3. Kossinets and Watts, “Origins of Homophily,” 439.

  Bibliography

Kossinets, Gueorgi, and Duncan J. Watts. “Origins of Homophily in an Evolving Social Network.” American Journal of Sociology 115 (2009): 405–50. Accessed February 28, 2010. doi:10.1086/599247.

Journal Article - with Permalink or Stable URL First Reference

1. Richard Jensen, "Military History on the Electronic Frontier: Wikipedia Fights the War of 1812," Journal Of Military History 76, no. 4 (October 2012): 1166, http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=ahl&AN= 80001381&site=ehost-live&scope=site.

  Future References

3. Jensen, "Military History," 1171.

  Bibliography

Jensen, Richard. "Military History on the Electronic Frontier: Wikipedia Fights the War of 1812." Journal Of Military History 76, no. 4 (October 2012): 1165-1182. http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=ahl&AN= 80001381&site=ehost-live&scope=site.

 

Other Sources

 

Thesis or Dissertation First Reference

1. Miranda L. Fraley, "The Politics of Memory: Remembering the Civil War in Rutherford County, Tennessee" (PhD diss., Indiana University, 2004), 6.

  Future References

3. Fraley, "The Politics of Memory," 5.

  Bibliography

Fraley, Miranda L. "The Politics of Memory: Remembering the Civil War in Rutherford County, Tennessee." PhD diss., Indiana University, 2004.

Websites   Chicago style prefers citations to specific pages / items on a website, not the WHOLE website itself. For instance, the example below cites the specific page "What is the Electoral College," rather than citing the entire National Archives website.
Web Pages First Reference

1. "What is the Electoral College?" National Archives, accessed December 21, 2012, http://www.archives.gov/federal-register/electoral-college/about.html.

  Future References

3. "What is the Electoral College?"

  Bibliography

"What is the Electoral College?" National Archives. Accessed December 21, 2012. http://www.archives.gov/federal-register/electoral-college/about.html.

 

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