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Guide to Scholarly Writing, Publishing, and Research Impact: Using Metrics in CVs, Grant Applications, Etc.

This guide to scholarly communications will acquaint researchers with knowledge and tools for better understanding and managing the creation and dissemination of their scholarly research.

Metrics Frameworks

The following frameworks may be helpful in deciding how to compile and communicate a well-rounded array of metrics.

Telling Your Story

Your Story as the Framework

Metrics are meaningless without appropriate context. Your story should always come FIRST; then add data as appropriate to support the narrative.

First write out your story in clear language, as you might tell it to a family member who asks why your work matters. How do you describe your researcher identity? Who is your audience, and what is the significance of your work to that audience? How does your work fit into the culture, values, or goals of your discipline? Your institution? 

Then carefully collect appropriate, relevant metrics that provide evidence for the value described in your story. Integrate these metrics into your story, being sure to explain clearly what they are and what they indicate.

Aspects to Consider

  • Authorship - What are the norms in your field, and what is valued? Is this a sole authorship or a collaboration, and why is that important? Is there significance in the identity of your collaborators, e.g., bringing interdisciplinary expertise, a weighty disciplinary reputation, etc.? What are the practices in your discipline for author byline order, and how do those norms apply to this work? Does being the first author or the last author indicate greater significance? (If your narrative may be read by someone with less familiarity of your field, they will likely need this explanation, because interpretations of byline order differ between fields.) 
  • Journal - Is it the official journal of an important scholarly association in your field? Why is it significant that your work is in this journal specifically, not just based on metrics, but based on its content scope, mission, history, longevity, reputation/status, etc. Who is the readership for this journal? How is that readership important for reaching your target audience?
  • Open access - If your work was published in an open-access journal, how does that fit with the values of your discipline and/or your institution? What were your reasons or goals for publishing OA, and what have been the outcomes so far?
  • Citations - How has attention to your work changed over time? Regardless of total citation counts, have your later works garnered more citations than your early works, showing an increase in attention to your work over time? 
  • Geographic location of views, downloads, and other attention metrics - How national or international is your reach? Has international attention to your work increased over time? How does your work becoming increasingly international fit with the goals of your work or the values and goals of your discipline or institution?
  • % of citations per discipline / subject area - How is interdisciplinary influence important to your goals? Has your work received increasing attention from other disciplines over time? 
  • Reproducibility - To what extent has your work been proven reproducible, reproduced, and/or validated by other researchers?
  • Teaching impact - Has your work been adopted in course syllabi, been cited in a textbook, or otherwise influenced teaching in your field?
  • Practice and policy impact - Has your work informed, influenced, or changed practice or policy, whether within your field, an organization, public/society, etc.? How does this align with your goals? Does it support the larger values or goals of your institution? 

Data Visualizations

In addition to specific metrics, consider what data visualizations might be helpful. Bar charts, pie charts, geographical maps, network maps?


Seek strong anecdotes to accompany numbers, especially with altmetrics--for example, share one thoughtful and substantive tweet about your work from an important peer in your field. Anecdotes help to illustrate quality of attention, rather than quantity alone.

Communicating Your Research Metrics

Ultimately, in choosing which metrics to report and how to report them, you must make decisions that best suit your work, your discipline, and your department.

Altmetrics may be one element of telling the story of your research, but researchers new to using these metrics may need help in how to explain them and incorporate them into documentation.

The resources below will provide suggestions for how to leverage metrics in various purposes.

The Periodic Table of Scientometric Indicators

When integrating metrics into CVs or for other purposes, be sure to consider the wide array of possible metrics and choose those which are most appropriate to your work, your discipline, and the purpose for which these metrics are being shared.

(click to enlarge infographic)

periodic table of scientometric indicators


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