The purpose of this research was to explore the relationship between university students’ perceptions of the overall quality of instruction (PQI) they experienced since COVID-19 and their academic well-being. This relationship was examined in the context of a moderated moderation with students’ household income and the cultural value of power distance (PD), which measures the extent to which less powerful members of an organization expect and accept that power is unequally distributed. Two countries with societally moderate levels of PD (South Africa and the United States) were assessed. Moderated moderations between PQI, income, and PD were found for the academic well-being of students from both the United States and South Africa. The patterns of interactions were in some ways similar and other ways different, highlighting the complexity of how students may react to potential stressors in their academic environment. Potential explanations and implications of these results are discussed.
In response to the COVID-19 pandemic-induced emergency pivot to online teaching and assessment, an Academic Safety Net was implemented at a regional Australian university to provide academic student support. Bayesian hierarchical models were used to compare student performance between 2019 and 2020. More students withdrew from subjects in 2020, while fewer students remained enrolled but failed. While there was no overall year effect for overall student achievement, exam achievement increased and on-course assessment achievement decreased in 2020. When achievement was analysed according to an assessment task change, a year effect emerged, with the magnitude and direction of the effect dependent on the task changes. The results indicate that the enrolment component of the Academic Safety Net was an effective equity measure that enabled students an extended opportunity to self-withdraw in response to general impacts of the pandemic; while the results component protected the integrity of results awarded during the emergency pivot.
A resounding emphasis on learning loss has pervaded popular discourse and academic research as children return to in-person instruction after COVID-related schooling interruptions, most notably including remote schooling. This paper examines how this emphasis links to persistent deficit-oriented views of children as lacking literacy and language. It proposes an expanded, anti-deficit conception of teacher noticing based upon four domains that deserve more visibility especially at this time in the literacy classroom: children's emotions, children's funds of knowledge, children's relationships, and children's purposes. It provides examples of how teachers might adopt deliberate noticing practices that attend to these domains.
A dangerous trap exists for educators and education policy makers: the learning loss. This trap comes with a large amount of data and with sophisticated projection methods. It presents a stunningly grim picture for education and it invites educators and policy makers to make wrong decisions and invest in wrong things. The article identifies a number of undesirable outcomes that their concerns could lead to. It also suggests several productive actions when the pandemic is controlled and schools reopen.
COVID learning loss has sparked fierce debate among stakeholders in education. There are debates among concerned educators about ways to understand learning loss reports, methods to measure learning loss, and strategies to recover from learning loss. In this article, we unpack opposing perspectives on these three controversies with the goal of extracting useful recommendations to guide post-pandemic education revival. Drawing from structural inequity theory, this article reviews the controversies through historical, current, and future lenses respectively: (1) Should we be talking about differential COVID learning loss? (2) Are we measuring COVID learning loss appropriately? and (3) Which recovery plans should we prioritize to address COVID learning loss? Within each controversy, the article makes suggestions on how practitioners may make sense of each controversy and integrate take-aways from them into their work.
In the second year of the COVID-19 pandemic, students entering college in fall 2021 had an unprecedented culmination to high school and transition to college. This chapter explores the experience of entering college students following these unprecedented circumstances, examining high school disruptions, including changes in the learning environment and its relationship to instructional mode preferences in college, and documenting students’ sense of optimism for college, their mental and emotional health, and perceptions of academic difficulty. Results show that the educational impact of the pandemic was not uniform across student groups and will remain an important factor in these students’ educational journey.
Background - This paper investigates how the COVID-19 school closure has affected the gender gap in grade-8 students' performance and what are the drivers behind this. By analysing four different countries (i.e., the Russian Federation, Slovenia, Uzbekistan and the United Arab Emirates), the paper represents the first study addressing the issue from a comparative perspective.
Results - The empirical results reveal that, during the COVID-19 school closure, girls tended to perceive changes in their learnings less favourably than boys, both in terms of improvement in self-perceived learning and self-reported improvement in grades—with odds of a more affirmative response between 20 and 25% lower for girls relative to boys. The main drivers explaining this gender gap are physical activity and psychological distress of students during the COVID-19 disruption, as well as the perceived family climate.
Conclusions - The paper shows systematic gender differences in how students perceived their educational outcomes changed due to the COVID-19 disruption, providing evidence on the factors driving these differences. The findings could be employed to design policy actions aimed at increasing gender equality in education.
Executive skills are brain-based skills that develop across childhood and that take a minimum of 25 years to reach full maturation. They are skills that support goal-directed behavior and although essential to school success, they are typically not explicitly listed in local, state, or national curriculum standards. When the pandemic closed schools in the USA in March 2020, the resulting reliance on remote-learning instruction exposed how much support teachers and in-person learning provide to students with immature executive skills. This paper will describe those supports and will build the case that in the absence of the kind of scaffolding teachers provide for students with weak executives, many students have struggled. Three strategies for strengthening executive skills will be outlined. These include: modifying the environment to make it more supportive and less punishing for students with weak executive skills; explicitly teaching executives by embedding them in daily routines; and offering incentives or motivators to entice students to practice skills which are laborious in their early stages of acquisition. Focusing on strengthening students’ executive skills will address the problem of “learning loss” that has resulted from the disruption the pandemic has caused.
- We perform a meta-analysis to study the effect of Covid-19 on student achievement.
- Our dataset includes 239 estimates from 39 studies covering 19 countries.
- The pandemic had an overall negative effect on learning outcomes.
- Students lost more ground in math/science than in other subjects.
- One year or more after Covid-19 students have not recovered from the initial learning loss.
Abstract - This work attempts to synthetize existing research about the impact of Covid-19 school closure on student achievement. It extends previous systematic reviews and meta-analyses by (a) using a more balanced sample in terms of country composition, (b) considering new moderators (type of data and research design), and (c) including studies on tertiary education students in addition to primary and secondary education students. Our meta-analysis findings show that the pandemic had, on average, a detrimental effect on learning. The magnitude of this learning deficit (about 0.19 standard deviations of student achievement) appears to be roughly comparable to that suffered by students who have experienced a significant disruption in their schooling due to a major natural disaster (e.g., Hurricane Katrina). Students are also found to have lost more ground in math/science than in other subjects. Additionally, one year or more after the first lockdown, students seem to have been unable to catch up on unfinished learning from the pandemic. This result suggests that more efforts should be made to ensure students recover their missed learning in order to avoid negative long-term consequences for them and society.
Background - In Spring 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic sent universities into emergency remote education. The pandemic has been disruptive but offers the opportunity to learn about ways to support students in other situations where abrupt changes to teaching and learning are necessary.
Purpose/Hypothesis - We described the responses of engineering and computer science students to a series of prompts about their experiences with remote learning.
Results - Student responses revealed how their individual circumstances combined to reduce motivation, create home environments detrimental to completing schoolwork, and increase stress. Many students described the negative impacts of remote learning, but some students found positive aspects of the situation. The majority of students did not indicate a change in their desire or plans to pursue engineering or computer science majors.
Conclusions - There was wide variation in how students experienced the disruption to university learning during Spring 2020. Implications of this paper can help not only in cases where emergency remote learning is needed in the future but also as universities seek to return to “normal” operations in 2022 and beyond.
COVID-19 lockdown has caused disruption to education of all levels with far-reaching implications and unveiled the shortfalls of the current education model. Cycles of tightening and relaxation of COVID-19 lockdown confer uncertainty to the continuity of education. This article aims to comprehensively present the impacts of COVID-19 on primary, secondary and tertiary education and propose sound educational practices in the COVID-19 era. Papers related to educational impacts and implications of COVID-19 were selected for this review through a PRISMA model. The review shows that a shift of learning remotely or online has affected educators and learners, especially in relation to learning loss among learners, limitations in instructions, assessment and experiential learning in virtual environment, technology-related constraints, connectivity, learning resources and materials, besides psychosocial well-being. These impacts are exacerbated by inequalities in the distribution of resources as well as inequities attributed to socioeconomic status, gender, ethnicity, learning ability and physical conditions. The recommendations for future educational practices comprise adaptability of curricula to embed independent and online learning options, concurrence of diverse learning modalities for seamless learning transitions and flexibility, flexible staffing and learning model, enhanced support, technological and curricular innovation with simplification and standardization, as well as interactive, responsive and authentic virtual environment. This review contributes significantly to enhance preparedness of education to crisis while ensuring continuity and quality of education in the era of COVID-19 uncertainty.
"Learning loss" has become the new buzzword in education during the COVID-19 era. Learning loss may be real in certain academic subjects (e.g. mathematics and reading) for certain students, as indicated by standardized test scores. However, it only tells a partial story. The other part of the story actually indicates different kinds of learning gain that might have occurred for children experiencing non-conventional learning opportunities during the COVID-19 pandemic. Thus, the authors caution against subscribing to a learning-loss narrative, a deficits-based perspective, which can lead one to lose sight of children's potential learning gains that are not necessarily assessed or recognized. Against this backdrop, the authors offer four recommendations: (1) reframing the concept of "learning loss" to "learning gain"; (2) applying a strengths-based model rather than a deficits-based model for understanding student learning; (3) investing in the development of the whole child; and (4) ensuring that we focus on young children's socio-emotional well-being (e.g., relationship-building) and not solely on the cognitive domains.
In a normal year approximately 3 months pass between students taking their final examinations in high school or college and beginning an undergraduate course in chemistry. In the months prior to those examinations, students will usually have undertaken an extensive period of revision and consolidation of the key concepts learned throughout their course. Some of this will be supported by their teachers and some will be independent study. The COVID19 pandemic resulted in the cancellation of these examinations in the UK and Ireland, potentially leaving students with a 6-month gap between their last formal study and beginning their undergraduate courses. Insights from the literature and from teachers of students in the 16–18 age range show that it is likely students beginning undergraduate courses in the autumn of 2020 will have weaknesses in subject knowledge compared to previous cohorts. This is likely to be more significant in the areas of synthetic transformations in organic chemistry and core physical chemistry topics. In this communication we present a brief analysis of the potential issues with subject knowledge in order that instructors in higher education may be better informed about the potential challenges in teaching and learning following the COVID19 disruption.
With Covid-19 having caused significant disruption to the global education system, researchers are beginning to become concerned with the impact that this has had on student learning progress and, in particular, whether learning loss has been experienced. To evaluate this, the authors conducted a thorough analysis of recorded learning loss evidence documented between March 2020 and March 2021. This systematic review aims to consolidate available data and to document what has been reported in the literature. Given the novelty of the subject, eight studies were identified; seven of these found evidence of student learning loss among at least some of the participants while one of the seven also found instances of learning gains in a particular subgroup. The remaining study found increased learning gains in their participants. Additionally, four of the studies observed increases in inequality where certain demographics of students experienced learning losses more significant than others. It is determined that further research is needed to increase the quantity of studies produced, their geographical focus, and the numbers of students they observe.
The article talks disrupts the notion that students affected by school interruptions have fallen behind and demonstrates how to appreciate and learn from students' strengths in the U.S. It mentions need for educators and policymakers to take into account the real consequences of Covid-19 health crises in the U.S. history on children's learning, deaths in families and communities and food insecurity.
In this paper, we project Skills in Literacy Adjusted Mean Years of Schooling (SLAMYS) for the working age population in 45 countries and quinquennial time periods until 2050 according to various population scenarios. Moreover, we integrate the effect of school closures due to the COVID-19 pandemic on these projections. Adult skills are projected using the cohort components method. They can help in assessing the potential consequences of the recent trends for the adult population, particularly the workforce, whose skills are essential for the jobs contributing to economic growth and development outlooks. Our projections are novel as they take into account both the amount of schooling and quality of education and also consider the changes in adult skills through lifetime. Projections show that the adult skills gap between countries in the Global North and countries in the Global South will likely continue to exist by 2050, even under very optimistic assumptions–but may widen or narrow depending on the demographic development trajectories specific to each country. Moreover, the loss of learning due to school closures during the COVID-19 pandemic further exacerbates inequalities between countries. Particularly, in countries where schools have been closed for a prolonged period of time and the infrastructure for effective online schooling is lacking, the skills of cohorts who were in school during the pandemic have been severely affected. The fact that the duration of school closures has been longer in many low- and middle-income countries is a serious concern for achieving global human capital equality. The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic is projected to erase decades-long gains in adult skills for affected cohorts unless policies to mitigate learning loss are implemented immediately.
The pandemic has provided a unique window of opportunity for higher education institutions to change because of the disruptions in normal ways of operating. The pandemic crisis has created opportunities to revise our strategies, internal and external partnerships, teaching methods, student pathways and recruitment approaches, incentive systems, faculty expertise, assessment approaches, and overarching goals of higher education. This article discusses a proactive stance suggesting that higher education must respond not only to the past, not even to the present, but to future needs.
A main goal of this paper is to complicate “learning loss” as the only, or even the main, thing schools should be concerned about as they respond to the Covid-19 pandemic. While schools have a responsibility to make sure students who are enrolled in school are learning, this cannot come at the cost of ignoring the other substantial losses students are also contending with. Following the work of Jonathan Lear, I make the case that schools should engage students in a process of learning how to mourn for their individual and our collective losses, while also considering ways that school can move beyond narrow conceptions of the purposes of school and to a deeper appreciation for the ways that an education can promote human excellence. As this pandemic wears on, it becomes harder and harder to do anything but endure. One goal of this paper is to serve as a reminder that schools can do more than endure: they can envision new possibilities for schooling that promote conceptions of wellbeing that go beyond fear of learning loss.
Analyses were conducted with second graders, drawn from an ongoing multi-cohort randomized controlled trial (RCT), who had been identified for RCT entry based on comorbid reading comprehension and word-problem solving difficulty. To estimate pandemic learning loss, we contrasted fall performance for 3 cohorts: fall of 2019 (pre-pandemic; n = 47), 2020 (early pandemic, when performance was affected by the truncated preceding school year; n = 35), and 2021 (later pandemic, when performance was affected by the truncated 2019 to 2020 school year plus the subsequent year's ongoing interruptions; n = 75). Across the 2 years, declines (standard deviations below expected growth) were approximately 3 times larger than those reported for the general population and for students in high-poverty schools. To estimate the promise of structured remote intervention for addressing such learning loss during extended school closures, we contrasted effects in the RCT's 2018 to 2019 cohort (entirely in-person intervention delivery; n = 66) against the same intervention's effects in the 2020 to 2021 cohort (alternating periods of remote and in-person delivery; n = 29). Large intervention effects were not moderated by pandemic status, suggesting potential for structured remote intervention to address student needs during extended school closures.
This study investigates how university students engage with their learning affordances in a contested environment due to the Coronavirus pandemic. This qualitative research employed a case study approach involving 136 participants. Data analysis was conducted using qualitative analysis as a circular process to describe, classify, and perceive the phenomenon and how the learning, affordances, and society were interconnected. The main framework of the research was the theory of affordance and how it was available for university students in their learning environment that changed due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Data were collected in the first semester of 2020 through an online survey on Google form. The findings indicate the importance of the social environment to provide affordance for the students to adjust with them. Four kinds of affordances emerged from the study; internet affordance, assignment affordance, domestic affordance, and distance learning affordance. The role of the social environment is definitive in changing how students manage their affordances.